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 作物學各論               玉米

玉米的用途    玉米的工業用途  玉米加工  玉米成分  榖粒分級


    玉米的用途

 

玉米顆粒

胚: cooking oil.

胚乳澱粉: food, ethanol fuel or corn sweeteners.

殼 :high in protein and is an important source of livestock feed.

玉米加工

玉米粗粉 corn meal:粉碎去除外皮與胚芽而得,作為飼料與酒精原料。
玉米細粉 corn flour:粗碎後用稀鹼去除蛋白質與油脂,然後水洗乾燥粉碎而得,用於糕餅料理。
玉米片 corn flakes:破碎玉米去除胚,塗上糖衣,煮後乾燥,以壓扁滾輪壓成片狀,然後烘乾而成,作為早餐用。
膨發玉米 puffed corn:用膨發機加熱即速噴出而成,作為零食。

A typical bushel of corn weighs 56 pounds and contains approximately 72,800 kernels.

A bushel is an unit of weight equal to 56 pounds. 39.4 bushels of corn equals approximately 1 metric ton.


A grain of dent corn contains: starch 61%, oil 3.8%, protein and fiber 19.2%, natural moisture 16%.

 

What can be extracted from a bushel of corn?
32 Pounds of Starch
     or 33 Pounds of Sweetener
     or 2.5 Gallons of Fuel Ethanol
and 11.4 Pounds of Gluten (Feed*)
and 3 Pounds of Gluten (Meal**)
and 1.6 Pounds of Corn Oil

Corn Refiner Association, USA

 

美國玉米用途(2011)

HFCS: High fructose corn syrup 高果糖玉米糖漿

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玉米穀粒主產品的工業用途 資料來源:NCGA

STARCHES      SYRUPS      DEXTROSE

STARCHES
Cornstarch: Industrial Uses

Abrasive paper and cloth
Adhesives (glues, mucilages, gums, etc.)
Batteries, dry cell
Binder or binding agents
Board (corrugating,
laminating, solid fiber-board, cardboard)
Boiler compounds
Bookbinding
Briquettes
Ceramics (as clay binder)
Chemicals
Cleaners, detergents
Coatings on wood, metal and paper
Color carrier (in paper and textile printing)
Cord polishing, sizing
Cork products
Crayon and chalk (as a binder)
Dispersing and standardizing agent
Dressing, surgical
Dyes (as a bodying agent, carrier diluent, etc.)
Fermentation processes
Fiberglass size
Fireworks
Insecticide powders
Insulating material (glass wool, rock wool, etc.)
Lubricating agents
Oilcloth
Oil-well drilling (drilling mud)
Ore refining (electrolytic reduction process, flotation process, etc.)
Paints (cleaning compounds, cold-water and latex paints, poster lacquers, etc.)
Paper and paper products manufacture
Plastics (molded)
Plywood (interior)
Printing
Protective colloids (emulsions)
Textiles (warp sizing and finishing)
Tile, ceiling
Tires, rubber
Wallboard and wallpaper
Water recovery, industrial

Cornstarch Food, Drug or Cosmetic Uses

Antibiotics
Aspirin
Baby foods
Bakery products
(bread, rolls cakes,
pies, crackers and
cookies)
Baking powder
Beverages, brewed
(beer, ale, etc.)
Chewing gum
Chocolate drink
Confectionery
Cosmetics
Desserts (puddings,
custards, etc.)
Drugs and
pharmaceuticals
Flours, prepared
(including prepared
mixes)
Food and drug coatings
Gravies and sauces
Meat products
Mixes, prepared
(pancake, waffle, cake, candy, etc.)
Mustard, prepared
Pie filling
Precooked frozen meals
Salad dressing
Soaps and cleaners
Soups
Sugar, powdered
Vegetables, canned

 

Dextrins:Industrial Uses

Adhesives (glues, pastes, mucilages, gums)
Bookbinding
Briquettes
Candles
Ceramics
Cord polishing
Core binder (castings, molds, etc.)
Cork products
Crayon and chalk (as a binder)
Dyes (dry, cake, etc.)
Envelopes
Fireworks
Inks, printing
Insecticides
Insulation, fiberglass
Labels
Leather
Linoleum
Magazines
Matches (on head and side of box)
Oil-well drilling
Ore separation
Paints (cold-water, poster, etc.)
Paper and paper products
Plastics (molding)
Plywood
Sandpaper
Shoes (counter pastes, polish, etc.)
Silvering compounds
Soaps
Straws (drinking)
Textiles, sizing, finishing and printing
Twine (cord, string, etc.)
Wallboard and wallpaper
Window shades and shade cloth

 

SYRUPS
Corn Syrup
Industrial Uses

Adhesives (plasticizing
agent)
Chemicals
Dyes and inks
Explosives
Leather tanning (chrome
process)
Metal plating
Paper, glassine and
parchment
Plasticizer
Polish, shoe
Rayon (viscose process)
Textiles, for finishing
Theatrical makeup
Tobacco and tobacco
products



 

 

Corn Syrup: Food, Drug Uses;

liquid or dried form

Baby foods
Bakery products (bread, rolls, biscuits, doughnuts, pies, cakes, cookies, pretzels, etc.)
Beverages, brewed (beer, ale, etc.)
Beverages, carbonated
Breakfast foods
Catsup, chili sauce, tomato sauce
Cereals, prepared
Cheese spreads and foods
Chewing gum
Chocolate products
Coffee whiteners
Condensed milk, sweetened
Confectionery
Cordials and liqueurs
Desserts
Eggs, frozen or dried
Extracts and flavors
Frostings and icings
Fruit butters and juices
Fruit drinks
Fruits (canned, candied, fillings, frozen, etc.)
Ice cream, water ices and sherbets
Jams, jellies, marmalades and preserves
Licorice
Malted products
Marshmallows and related products
Meat products (sausage, etc.)
Medicinal preparations (drugs, pharmaceuticals)
Mixes, prepared (cakes, infant foods, pie fillings, pudding, powders, ice cream, etc.)
Peanut butter
Pickles and pickle products
Salad dressing
Sauces (seasoning, specialty, etc.)
Seafood, frozen
Soups, dehydrated
Syrups (table, chocolate, cocoa, fruit, medicinal,
soda fountain, cordials, etc.)
Toppings
Vinegar

High Fructose
Corn Syrup
Food Uses

Bakery products
Canned fruits
Canned juices
Condiments
Confectionery products
Frozen desserts
Jams, jellies and preserves
Soft drinks
Wine
Yeast

Maltodextrins
Food Uses

Bakery mixes
Beverage powders
Condiments
Dehydrated foods
Dry soup mixes
Gum confections
Icings and glazes
Instant tea
Instant breakfast foods
Low calorie sweeteners
Marshmallows
Nougats
Pan coatings
Sauce and gravy mixes
Snack foods

 

DEXTROSE
Industrial Uses
Acids, commercial
(lactic, acetic, gluconic,
etc.)
Adhesives
Amino acids
Chemicals (calcium,
lactate, sodium lactate,
etc.)
Citric
Dyes
Electroplating and
galvanizing
Enzymes
Lactic acid polymers
Leather tanning
Lysine
Mannitol
Paper manufacturing
Rubber (cold process)
Sizing materials
Sorbitol
Textiles, dyeing and
finishing
Threonime
Tryptophan



 
Food, Drug Uses
Antibiotics
Baby foods
Bakery products
(biscuits, bread, crackers, fillings, icings, macaroons, pretzels, cookies, crackers, wafers, etc.)
Berries, canned and frozen
Beverages, brewed (beer, ale, etc.)
Beverages, carbonated
Breakfast foods
Caramel color
Cheese foods and spreads
Chewing gum
Chocolate products
Citric acid
Citrus juices
Coloring, pure food mix
Condensed milk
Confectionery
Cordials, liqueurs and brandy
Cream, frozen
Dairy products
Desserts
Dietetic preparations
Distillation products
Doughnuts (cake, yeast)
Drugs (fermentation process)
Eggs, frozen or dried
Fish, pickled
Flavoring extracts
Food acids (citric, etc.)
Fruit juices
Fruits and vegetables (canned)
Fruits (candied, glace, frozen)
Gelatin desserts
Ice cream, water ices and sherbets
Infant and invalid
feeding
Jams, jellies,
marmalades and preserves
Lactic acid
Meat products (bacon, bologna, hams, sausage, frankfurters, mincemeat)
Medicinal preparations and intravenous
(injections, pills, tablets, drugs, etc.)
Mixes, prepared (cake, icings and frosting, infant foods, pie fillings, toppings, etc.)
Peanut butter
Peas, canned
Pectin, fruit
Pickles and pickle products
Prepared mixes
Powders (ice cream,
prepared dessert, pudding, summer drink, powders, etc.)
Sauces (catsup, tomato, etc.)
Seasoning mixes, dry
Sorbitol (in candies, toothpaste, etc.)
Soups, dehydrated
Spices and mustard preparations
Syrups (table, fountain, medicinal, etc.)
Vinegar
Wine
Xanthan gums
Yeast
Hydrol
Corn-sugar
molasses

Leather tanning
Livestock feed
Organic acids
Organic solvents
Tobacco

Ethanol
Alcoholic beverages
Industrial alcohol
Octane enhancer
Oxygenate in motor
fuels

Personal care
products

Mouthwash
Toothpaste

 

 

玉米穀粒副產品的工業用途: 資料來源:NCGA

 

SOLUBLES

GLUTEN AND HULLS

GERM
Steepwater
 

Antibiotics
Chemicals
Pharmaceuticals
Yeast

Steepwater for
Feed

Gluten Feed and
Meal
Oil Meal

Products Used
by Livestock,
Poultry and
Dairy

Corn germ meal
Corn gluten feed
Corn gluten meal
Corn oil by-products
Corn sugar (crude and refined)
Hydrol (corn-sugar molasses)
Steepwater for feed (condensed
fermented corn extractives)
Corn Germ Meal,
Corn Gluten Feed,
Corn Gluten Meal
Other Uses

Amino acids
Fur cleaner
Zein and other
protein products
Corn Oil, Refined
Food, Drug Uses

Carriers for vitamins
and other medicinal
preparations in capsule
form
Cooking oil
Margarine
Mayonnaise
Potato chips
Salad dressing
Sauces, seasoning
Shortening
Soups

Corn Oil and
Free Fatty Acids
Industrial Uses

Chemicals and
insecticides
Lecithin (for pharmaceuticals,
cosmetics, linoleum, printing inks, etc.)
Paint and varnish
Rubber substitutes
Rust preventative (surface coatings)
Soap
Soluble oil (leather and tanning use)
Textiles

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玉米加工

 Wet Milling(濕性磨粉)

Most popular method of processing corn. Mix of water and grinding of dent or "field" corn separates corn into chemical constituents such as starch, protein, fiber and oil.

Dry Milling(乾性磨粉)

Processing method which separates elements contained in the corn kernel by mechanical force.

乾性磨粉產物的用途:

美國1977年數據:

用途 數量(百萬磅) %
釀酒: 1850 29.8
食品: 1610 26.0
非食品:   530   8.7
飼料: 2200 35.5
合計 6190  

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玉米成分

 

玉米種子 熱量
cal/100g
%, wet base
含水量 蛋白質 脂質 灰份 纖維 澱粉
台南5號 327 14.9 4.8 3.9 1.3 3.8 71.3
美國種原*

.

. 9.9-14.1 3.4-5.9 . . 65-72

*CORRECTED TO A STANDARD MOISTURE LEVEL (DRY WEIGHT BASIS). From GRIN, USDA,

 

澱粉

玉米澱粉粒的特性

大小(mm) 形狀 備註
2-30, 平均10 角形、多角形或球形 不具同心圓線,粒臍星形

 

蛋白質

玉米各類蛋白質佔總蛋白質的百分比 (個例)

albumin

globulin

glutelin

prolamin

4

2

39

55

 

油脂

玉米種子油的脂肪酸組成 (個例)

脂肪酸百分比

14:0
myristic acid
16:0
palmitic acid
棕櫚酸
16:1 18:0
stearic acid
18:1
oleic acid

油酸 (9)
18:2
linolic acid

亞油酸(9,12)
1.4% 10.2% 1.5% 3% 49.6% 34.3%

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美國玉米榖粒分類

  • 黃玉米    其他顏色玉米不得超過5%

  • 白玉米    其他顏色玉米不得超過2%

  • 混合玉米

美國玉米榖粒分級

等級

最輕容積重量

(pounds/bushel)

最大允許量

受損榖粒*

斷裂玉米與其他物質**(%)

熱損榖粒(%)

總數(%)

No. 1

56.0

0.1

3.0

2.0

No. 2

54.0

0.2

5.0

3.0

No. 3

52.0

0.5

7.0

4.0

No. 4

49.0

1.0

10.0

5.0

No. 5

46.0

3.0

15.0

7.0

*受損榖粒除了熱損 (Heat damage) 外,還包括Blue-eye mold damage, Cob rot damage, Germ damage, Dryer damage, Sprout, Insect damage等

** 斷裂玉米(Broken corn, BC)指經法定方法篩選,可通過0.48公分圓孔篩,而仍留在0.24公分圓孔篩上之玉米。其他物質指的是可通過0.24公分圓孔篩上,以及留在0.48公分圓孔篩上的非玉米粒物質,包括夾雜物和其他穀物。                   

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