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  作物學各論               小麥

小麥生育階段


參考資料:Winter Wheat Production. University of Saskatchewan
http://www.usask.ca/agriculture/plantsci/winter_cereals/index.php

Chapter 10 - Growth Stages of Wheat  WHEAT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
http://www.usask.ca/agriculture/plantsci/winter_cereals/winter-wheat-production-manual/chapter-10.php


小麥生育階段可分為

  1. 發芽期 Germination

  2. 幼苗期 Seedling

  3. 分蘗期 Tillering

  4. 莖伸長期 Stem elongation or Jointing

  5. 孕穗期 Booting

  6. 抽穗期 Heading

  7. 開花期 Flowering or Anthesis

  8. 乳熟期 Milk

  9. 糊熟期 Dough

  10. 成熟期 Ripening

Wheat growth and developmental stages according to the Zadoks scale.

進一步請看 Zadoks' scale

 

1. 發芽期
Wheat germination.
2 幼苗期    幼苗萌發(emergence)
**始於第 1葉出現 ( 圖3 ),終於第一分糱出現 。Zadoks stage 10圖3:
**本時期種子根可達6條,三片葉子。
**冠根 (crown root) 開始長出 Zadoks stage 13

3. 分蘗期 Tillering Stage
**三片葉子長出後,分糱出現,冠根系統展開。
**每個分糱都是長到第三葉片後,開始長出冠根系統,以及該分糱的分糱。
**分糱期結束時,主稈與有效分糱的頂端分生組織停止長新葉,而轉為形成生殖構造,即進行穗的分化發育
**每一分糱的葉數都較上一層的分糱少一個葉片。
**早熟性春小麥在主稈長出7-8葉片後就進入生殖生長。冬小麥等需春化處理者,對溫度或日長有特殊的需求,會長較多的葉片。

4. 莖伸長期 Stem Elongation Stage (Jointing Stage)
**首先假莖先伸長 (Zadoks stage 30),接著節間開始由下節而上節伸長,將生長中的穗體往上推。第一節伸長時(Zadoks stage 31) 可以用手指頭將主稈基部壓一壓,即可察覺。
**當第一節長到離土表約1 cm時,小穗的發育通常已經完成(Zadoks stage 31),此時發育不良的分糱會退化。
**劍葉抽出時,莖就停止伸長。

5. 孕穗期  Booting Stage
此時期,穗在劍葉內開始增大,一直到第一個芒由劍葉抽出為止。

6. 抽穗期 Heading Stage
芒開始由劍葉抽出,一直到整個穗完全抽出但尚未開花。

7. 開花期   Flowering or Anthesis Stage
幾天之內,所有的小花內外穎張開之際,已完成授粉,胚與胚乳旋即開始發育。

8. 乳熟期 Milk Stage
榖粒初步形成,大小迅速增加,胚乳含有乳白狀液體。

9. 糊熟期 Dough Stage
榖粒發育完成,乾重約已達最高,但含水率仍高。

10. 成熟期   Ripening Stage
榖粒含水率已下降,可以採收。


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zadoks' scale

Germination
00 Dry seed
01 Water uptake (imbibition) started
03 Imbibition complete
05 Radicle emerged from seed
07 Coleoptile emerged from seed
09 Leaf just at coleoptile tip
Seedling developmet
10 First leaf emerged
11 First leaf unfolded
12 2 leaves unfolded
13 3 leaves unfolded
14 4 leaves unfolded
15 5 leaves unfolded
16 6 leaves unfolded
17 7 leaves unfolded
18 8 leaves unfolded
19 9 or more leaves unfolded
Tillering
20 Main shoot only
21 Main shoot and 1 tiller
22 Main shoot and 2 tillers
23 Main shoot and 3 tillers
24 Main shoot and 4 tillers
25 Main shoot and 5 tillers
26 Main shoot and 6 tillers
27 Main shoot and 7 tillers
28 Main shoot and 8 tillers
29 Main shoot and 9 or more tillers
Stem elongation or jointing
30 Pseudo stem erection
31 1st node detectable
32 2nd node detectable
33 3rd node detectable
34 4th node detectable
35 5th node detectable
36 6th node detectable
37 Flag leaf just visible
39 Flag leaf ligule/collar just visible
Booting
40  ----
41 Flag leaf sheath extending
45 Boot just swollen
47 Flag leaf sheath opening
49 First awns visible
Heading
50 First spikelet of head visible
53 1/4 of head emerged
55 1/2 of head emerged
57 3/4 of head emerged
59 Emergence of head complete
Flowering of Anthesis
60 Beginning of flowering
65 Flowering half complete
69 Flowering complete
Milk
70  ----
71 Kernel watery
73 Early milk
75 Medium milk
77 Late milk
Dough
80  ----
83 Early dough
85 Soft dough
87 Hard dough
Ripening
90  ----
91 Kernel hard (difficult to separate by fingernail)
92 Kernel hard
93 Kernel loosening in daytime
94 Overripe, straw dead and collapsing
95 Seed dormant
96 50% of viable seed germinates
97 Seed not dormant
98 Secondary dormancy
99 Secondary dormancy lost


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